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Introduction – (Anti – fraud Section)

The Anti-fraud section under Crime two has been in existence since Zambia’s Independence. The Assistant Director - Crime two is responsible for all matters relating to frauds, Interpol, financial and cybercrimes and supervises all anti-fraud units in the Zambia Police. The offices for Anti-frauds can be found at national, divisional and district levels.

Fraud

  • Fraud can be defined as the wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal loss to one party and gain to the other party, ora deliberate misrepresentation which causes another to suffer damage usually monetary loss.
  • It can also be defined as a deceitful conduct designed to manipulate another person by cheating or concealing truth with a view of gaining something of value.
  • To receive and analyses all financial crimes reported by various complainants.
  • To investigate and establish the truth in all financial crimes reported to the unit.
  • To arrest offenders and take them before the competent courts of law so that justice may prevails.
  • Enhancement of cooperation’s with other security wings on all matters relating to financial and cybercrimes.
  • Liaising with other countries in matters relating to financial and cybercrimes through our Interpol.
  • Educating the general members of the public about the dangers of cybercrimes.
  • To report the examinations results accurately and completely.

Such crimes are mostly committed by well educated people working as a syndicate and are usually referred to as ‘white collar crimes’. In most instances, rewards from fraud are much greater.


 

The main functions of the Anti-fraud unit are as follows-:

  • To receive and analyses all financial crimes reported by various complainants.
  • To investigate and establish the truth in all financial crimes reported to the unit.
  • To arrest offenders and take them before the competent courts of law so that justice may prevails.
  • Enhancement of cooperation’s with other security wings on all matters relating to financial and cybercrimes.
  • Liaising with other countries in matters relating to financial and cybercrimes through our Interpol.
  • Educating the general members of the public about the dangers of cybercrimes.
  • To report the examinations results accurately and completely.
  • The section has officers who are trained and specialized in investigating: -

    • All financial crimes against persons and corporate entities.
    • All insurance frauds.
    • Crimes of false representations in both private and public sectors.
    • False representation in matters relating to Title deeds, birth and marriage certificates.
    • Crimes of false representation relating to importation of goods into the country.
    • All cybercrimes which include email hacking, unauthorized access to persons and company data, credit card and online transactions such as motor vehicle purchases and banking.
    • Elements of fraud

      • Unlawfulness-the wrong action must be seen in the eyes of society.
      • Misrepresentation –may take the form of words or failure to disclose certain information in circumstances where there is a duty to do so.
      • Intent- the person making the misrepresentation must have intention to deceive, defraud or foreseeing that the victim would be deceived.
      Types of fraud
      • Financial fraud
      • Forgery
      • Insurance fraud
      • False identities
      • Cyber crimes
      • Financial fraud-these are monetary crimes were perpetrators either falsify or forge documents such as vouchers, cheaque or any other accounting documents in order to obtain money fraudulently.

        Forgery-this type of fraud is related to falsifying and forgery of official documents such as title deeds, passports, academic certificates, driving licenses and National Registration Cards among other documents.

      • Insurance fraud- insurance fraud is any act committed with intent to fraudulently obtain payment from an insurer.

        Credit card fraud-the fastest growing type of credit card fraud is counterfeiting. Recently, most counterfeits were manufactured using card readers to steal information from genuine cards to plastic card ones.


         

      • CREDIT CARD FRAUD (SKIMMIMG)

        A criminal may use different ways when obtaining or collecting someone’s data among them:-

        • Magnetic stripe of a valid card which can be a debit card, visa, master card and many more.
        • placing a camera, plastic electronic key pad or blocker at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

        Once the criminals steal this data, they then use it for Hotel booking, Airline booking, buying of goods through internet or a shop or even paying off bills etc.

        ON LINE BANKING (PHISHING)

        This type of crime is committed when an unknown person requests for your bank details through website providers or the hacker. Once these details are given out, the hacker uses the same information to steal money from the unsuspecting customer.


        DETECTION OF FRAUD

        Fraud can be detected through –

        • Intelligence, critical auditing and spot checking
        • Critical analysis of documents and monthly reconciliation of all books of accounts.
        • Fraudulent false Accounting Contrary to section 326
        • Theft by Public Servant Contrary to section 277
        • Theft C/Sec 272
        • Forgery C/Sec 342 and 347
        • Uttering C/Sec 352
        • Counterfeiting C/Sec 364
        • Making a false document C/Sec 344
        • Obtaining Money by False Pretences C/Sec 309
        • Conspiracy to fraud C/Sec 313
        • Theft by Directors C/Sec 297 Cap 87

        You may also wish to know that all offences committed under frauds are punishable by law and below are some of the cases and sections in the penal code of the laws of Zambia.

        Unauthorized access to data C/Sec 99 of EFT Act of 2009.

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