Zambia Police Service, is charged with the responsibility of maintaining peace, law and order in all our communities country-wide. In order to effectively and efficiently execute its mandate ....Read More
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Police action pictures
RTSA and Police enhances Traffic Management aimed at reducing Road Traffic Accidents.
Commonwealth Special Envoy to Zambia, His Excellency Professor Ibrahim Gambari pays a courtesy call to the Inspector General of Police Mr. Kakoma Kanganja
The IG with the National Team Coach Chief Inspector Zulu and Netball player Sergeant Helen Tembo
Commissioner of Police In-Charge of Administration, Lillian Lombe Kamukoshi shaking hands with Home Affairs Minister, Honourable Stephen Kampyongo while Inspector General of Police, Mr Kakoma Kanganja looks on.
Nkhwazi Theatre Club in action during the award winning Play, The Rituals, at Lusaka Play House.
Service Chiefs Laying wreaths at the Cenotaph during commemoration of the Remembrance Day
The Zambia Police Force in its current form has a very rich background. It is important to note that once upon a time, the responsibility of maintaining law and order was shouldered on the Northern Rhodesia Police Force from which the Northen Rhodesia Regiment, now the Zambia Army, originated.
The evolution of the Zambia Police Force is associated with the expansion of economic interests to the land north of the Zambezi river by the British South African Company(BSA), a privately owned enterprise which had its headquarters in South Africa. The main economic interest of BSA was to aquire mining rights in Northern Rhodesia and the first contact was with the Paramount Chief of Barotseland.
Chief Executive Officer of BSA, Cecil Rhodes sent an officer from Bechuanaland Police by the name of Lochner to negotiate a concession with authorities of Barotseland.The BSA Company was granted a charter in 1811 to expand its activities over the territory north of the Zambezi river. During this period, there was growing influence of German expansion from Tanganyika and the threat of slave trading by the Arabs in the north. This prompted Cecil Rhodes to expand the influence of the BSA in the land north of the Zambezi River. Northern Rhodesia was divided into two regions, the North Eastern Rhodesia and Northwestern Rhodesia. In order to accomplish the business mandate, the BSA organised armed forces comprising officers seconded from British regiment which was based in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia.
The evolution of the Zambia Police is associated with the events that took place in the divided areas of North-Eastern Rhodesia and North-Western Rhodesia.
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The BSA Company penetrated the northern frontier of Northern Rhodesia from Blantyre, Nyasaland and the main aim of occupying the area was to halt German influence from Tanganyika and to fight slave trading by the Arabs. Before the BSA Company moved into the territory, the Imperial Commissioner of Nyasaland, Mr. H H Johnson was appointed as administrator of the Company and during this period, the Indian Police Force was raised and equipped.
An agreement was made in 1894 between the BSA and Her majesty, the Queen permitting the company to take over the administration of North-Eastern Rhodesia from the Imperial Commissioner. The BSA Company recruited its own Police Force and in 1900, the North-Eastern Order Council was passed which provided for the formation of the Police Force. The Police Force was formed and it became known as the North-Eastern Constabulary. By 1902, the number of Police officers rose to 385 and Police Station were opened in Mkushi, Kapopo, Muyanga and Feira.The Headquarters of North-Eastern Constabulary was at Fort Jameson now Chipata.
The main duty was to maintain law and order in North-Eastern Rhodesia. The Force was semi military as officers underwent training in musketry and were issued with rifles. As a rule, Police officers were not allowed to carry weapons when performing duties. The Police officers responsibility was to maintain law and order, carry out guard duties and escorting caravans.
A no man’s land between the two territories existed and each part had its own admistration. Lochner, an officer from Bechuanaland Police Force was sent by Rhodes to conclude the agreement and when authority was granted by Lewanika to expand its economic interests, the BSA company realised the need to institute a Police Force to accomplish the mission. The Police Force was constituted and it comprised European volunteers from Southern Rhodesia. The BSA title was relinquished and the company name became British South African Police.
The area of jurisdiction of the Force included Kafue Flats and the first Police Post was established at Fort Monze, the second one was opened at Kaleya in Mazabuka. It was from these posts that police patrols of the BSA Police Force were conducted around Kafue Flats and Batoka Plateau. Police Stations were also established in Kazungula, Sesheke and Kalomo.These areas were not suitable due to threats of disease like malaria. Kalomo was identified to be ideal and was made the headquarters of North western Rhodesia Police Force. The need arose to incorporate a body of native Police officers in the Force.
Authority was granted through the proclamation of 1899 to establish the Barotse Native Police. By 1902, there were five districts each supervised by the District Commissioner and each constituted a detachment of Barotse Native Police. The areas included Monze, Nkala, Kasempa, Lealui and Victoria falls.
The Northwestern Rhodesia Police Force and Northeastern Rhodesia Constabulary were amalgamated in 1911 to form the Northern Rhodesia Police Force with its headquarters in Livingstone. The first commandant of the police force was major F.A Hodson and the organization was a military one. A limited number of about 12 Europeans were recruited to perform civil police functions. These were deployed along the line of rail and performed duties in towns and districts while the bulk of the force was called military company.
When the First World War broke out in1914, the military branch of Northern Rhodesia Police Force was declared active. The military branch fought in areas outside the limits of the country while the civil police performed duties in the towns and districts. In 1924, through an ordinance, a Police Force which was purely civil in form, character and organisation was formed as part of reorganisation. Its functions and areas of jurisdiction were clearly re-defined by the Northern Rhodesia Ordinance. The Force had also the military branch where an entrant was required to serve at least three years before being transferred to Police duties. During this time, the British Crown took over the administration of Northern Rhodesia from the British South African Company.
In 1927, a training depot was opened at Livingstone for the Civil Police. In July, 1928, a further re-organisation took place. The Officer Commanding Town and District Police was re-designated as Commissioner of Police. Military ranks of sergeant-major 1st, 2nd and 3rd class and Sergeants, were re-designated as Inspector and Assistant Inspectors. By 1932, the civil branch of the force had grown larger than the military one and it was decided to form separate units. As a temporal measure, they were given the titles of Northern Rhodesia civil Police and Northern Rhodesia military Police but later in the same year, the civil title was dropped from the former and the following year, the latter became the Northern Rhodesia Regiment which later evolved to what is known as the Zambia Army.
On the Copperbelt, mine towns, the slowness of the mining companies promoting Africans sparked off violent strikes in 1955. Armed police were used to quell the strikes with many casualties on the civilian side. Police functions were further compounded by activities of the African nationalist movements led by Keneth Kaunda’s UNIP and Harry Nkumbula’s ANC party which agitated for the end of colonial rule in Northern Rhodesia. At the same time, an uprising was looming in the north of the country where a religious movement known as the Lumpa, led by Alice Lenshina intended to break away from the country. This led to the creation of a wing of the police called the Mobile Unit in 1949. The unit acted as a striking force in disturbed areas.
The years leading to the territory’s independence were most difficult in the history of the Police. For example, in 1961, UNIP launched an extensive civil disobedience against the Colonial Government called ChaChaCha that spearheaded activities especially in the Northern, Luapula and Copperbelt provinces. Inspite UNIP’s leader’s insistence on using peaceful means to end white-minority rule in Northern Rhodesia, violence was extensively used by Kaunda’s followers. Bridges and Government buildings such as schools and courts were burnt, roads and vehicles were damaged.
In October 1964, when the territory gained its political independence, UNIP became the ruling party.
Courtesy of History and Reformation of Zambia Police: Lusaka: Unza Press